Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme is a cent per cent Centrally sponsored Scheme. It was introduced in Manipur on 2nd October 1975 with a pilot project at Ukhrul T.D. Block. The Scheme has been successfully being implemented by the Department of Social Welfare as the nodal department. Now, the scheme is expanding throughout the State with 34 projects covering 9 C.D. Blocks, 24 T.D. Blocks and 1 Urban. 4501 Nos. of Anganwadi Centres are also actively functioning under these projects. It is one of the most ambitions and comprehensive survival and child development schemes for enhancing the health, nutrition and learning opportunities for pre-school children and their mothers by simultaneously providing all the requisite services at the village level. The significant factor is that the deprived and underprivileged children are the target groups of this scheme.
ICDS care for children below six years of age. It also takes car3e of essential needs of pregnant women and nursing mothers residing in socially backward villages and urban slums.
- Improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age group 0-6 years
- Lay the foundation of proper psychological, physical and social development of the child.
- Reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropouts.
- Achieve effective coordination of policy and implementation among various departments to promote child development.
- Enhance the capability of the mother to look after the normal health and nutritional needs of the child, through proper health and nutrition education.
The focal point for the delivery of ICDS services is an Anganwadi �ｽEa child-care center, located within the village or slum area itself. Each Anganwadi is run by an Anganwadi worker (AWW) and a Helper appointed from amongst the locality.
In order to achieve the above mentioned aims and objectives, the following package of services implemented :
- Supplementary nutrition.
- Health check-ups
- Referral service
- Treatment of minor illness
- Nutrition and health education
- Pre-school education (to children in the age group of 3-6 years)
- Convergence of other supportive services, like water supply, sanitation, etc.
At the Anganwadi, children, adolescent girl and pregnant women and nursing mothers are examined at regular intervals by the Lady health Visitor (LHV) and Auxilliary Nurse (ANM) who also administer diagnose minor ailments and distribute simple medicines. They provide a link between the village and the Primary Health Care sub-centre.
All children in the project area are immunized against diptheria, whooping cough, tetanus, poliomyelitis, tuborculosis and measles. All pregnant women are immunized against tetanus.
All families in the community are surveyed to identify the poorest and deprived children below the age of six and expectant and nursing mothers for three hundred days a year, food is given to them at the Anganwadi.
A children below the age of six are weighed of their mid upper arm circumference measured periodically, weight for �ｽEage growth charts are maintained to identify malnourished cases. Those suffering from severe malnutrition (Grade III and IV) are given special supplementary nutrition and acute cases are referred to the medical services.
Non-formal education in nutrition and health is organized at the Anganwadi for mothers and pregnant women. All women between 15 and 45 are invited and special care is taken to ensure attendance of pregnant and nursing mothers and mothers of children who suffer from repeated illness of malnutrition.
Pre-school education in a non-formal setting forms the backbone of the ICDS programme as all services coverage at the Angawandi �ｽEthe pre-school center. Children between the ages of three and six attended the Anganwadi for about three hours a day. The main objective of pre-school education component is to stimulate and satisfy the curiosity of the child, rather than follow any rigid lea5rning curriculum. Children are taught songs and games. Toys are indigenous and imaginatively produced from inexpensive, locally available materials. There is no formally structured curriculum, and flexibility is encouraged.
The schemes for adolescent girls focus on school drop-out girls in the age group of 11-18 years and attempt to meet the Nutrition, Health, Education, Literacy, Recreational and Skill Development needs of the Adolescent Girls. It attempts to make the Adolescent Girl a better future mother and tap her potential as a social animator. The scheme relies on center-based instructions, training camps and hands-on training.
The Scheme for Adolescent Girls have been sanctioned in 13 blocks in Manipur.
4 (four) anganwadi workers Training Centres run by the NGOs and the State Government have conducted the Job-Course Training for Anganwadi Workers/Orientation Course for Anganwadi Helpers, Refresher Course for AWWs and AHs.
The Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY) is a new initiative which aims at achieving the objectives of sustainable human development at the village level. Nutrition is also one of the major component / services under the scheme. The scheme is providing nutrition to the beneficiaries under the ICDS through their respective projects. Details of beneficiaries under the scheme at the end of August, 2002 are shown in the enclosed Annexure.